Shoulder

Shoulder

Your shoulders are the most movable joints in your body. They can also be unstable because the ball of the upper arm is larger than the shoulder socket that holds it. To remain in a stable or normal position, the shoulder must be anchored by muscles, tendons and ligaments. Because the shoulder can be unstable, it is the site of many common problems. They include sprains, strains, dislocations, separations, tendinitis, bursitis, torn rotator cuffs, frozen shoulder, fractures and arthritis.


Usually shoulder problems are treated with RICE. This stands for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. Other treatments include exercise, medicines to reduce pain and swelling, and surgery if other treatments don't work.

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

Start Here

Shoulder Problems(American Academy of Family Physicians) - http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/tools/symptom/518.printerview.html


What Are Shoulder Problems?(National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases) - http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Shoulder_Problems/shoulder_problems_ff.asp

Also available in Spanish http://www.niams.nih.gov/Portal_En_Espanol/Informacion_de_Salud/Problemas_hombros/default.asp


Overviews


Common Shoulder Injuries(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00327


Questions and Answers about Shoulder Problems(National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases) -

http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Shoulder_Problems/default.asp


Shoulder Pain(American Academy of Family Physicians) - http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/healthy/physical/injuries/268.printerview.html


Also available in Spanish

http://familydoctor.org/online/famdoces/home/healthy/physical/injuries/268.printerview.html


Taking Care of Your Shoulder(American Physical Therapy Association) - Links to PDF - http://www.apta.org/AM/Images/APTAIMAGES/ContentImages/ptandbody/shoulder/shoulder.pdf


Latest News


Shoulder Surgery Helps Athletes Get Back in the Game(07/10/2009, HealthDay) - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_86722.html


Strength Testing Could Reduce Pitching Injuries(07/10/2009, HealthDay) - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_86721.html


Nonsurgical Treatment May Ease Rotator Cuff Injury(06/30/2009, HealthDay) - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_86256.html


Diagnosis/Symptoms


Conventional Arthrography (Joint X-Ray)(American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America) - http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=arthrog&bhcp=1


Also available in Spanish http://www.radiologyinfo.org/sp/info.cfm?pg=arthrog


MRI of the Musculoskeletal System(American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America) - http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=muscmr

Also available in Spanish http://www.radiologyinfo.org/sp/info.cfm?pg=muscmr


Shoulder Arthroscopy(Patient Education Institute) - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/shoulderarthroscopy/htm/index.htm


Also available in Spanish http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/tutorials/shoulderarthroscopyspanish/htm/index.htm


Shoulder Problems(American Academy of Family Physicians) - http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/tools/symptom/518.printerview.html


Ultrasound - Musculoskeletal(American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America) - http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=musculous


Also available in Spanish http://www.radiologyinfo.org/sp/info.cfm?pg=musculous


Treatment


Joint and Soft Tissue Injections(American Academy of Family Physicians) - http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/healthy/physical/injuries/774.printerview.html


Also available in Spanish http://familydoctor.org/online/famdoces/home/healthy/physical/injuries/774.printerview.html


Rotator Cuff Tears and Treatment Options(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00406

Shoulder Replacement(Patient Education Institute) - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/shoulderreplacement/htm/index.htm


Also available in Spanish

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/tutorials/shoulderreplacementspanish/htm/index.htm


Thermal Capsulorrhaphy(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00034


Rehabilitation/Recovery

Shoulder Osteoarthritis Treatment(UpToDate) - http://www.uptodate.com/patients/content/topic.do?topicKey=bone_joi/8530


Shoulder Surgery Exercise Guide(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00067


Also available in Spanish http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00495


Specific Conditions
AC (Acromioclavicular) Joint Injuries(American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine) - Links to PDF - http://www.sportsmed.org/secure/reveal/admin/uploads/documents/ST%20AC%20Joint%20Injuries%2008.pdf


Adhesive Capsulitis (Frozen Shoulder)(American Academy of Family Physicians) - http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/healthy/physical/injuries/374.printerview.html


Also available in Spanish http://familydoctor.org/online/famdoces/home/healthy/physical/injuries/374.printerview.html


Arthritis of the Shoulder(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00222


Biceps Tendinitis of the Shoulder(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00026&return_link=0


Biceps Tendon Tear at the Shoulder(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00031


Broken Collarbone(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00072


Dislocated Shoulder(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) - http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/dislocated-shoulder/DS00597/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print


Fracture of the Shoulder Blade (Scapula)(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00359


Impingement of the Shoulder(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00032


Overuse Injuries(National Athletic Trainers' Association) - http://www.nata.org/consumer/overuse.htm


Rotator Cuff Injuries(Patient Education Institute) - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/rotatorcuffinjuries/htm/index.htm


Also available in Spanish http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/tutorials/rotatorcuffinjuriesspanish/htm/index.htm

Separated Shoulder(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) - http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/separated-shoulder/DS00933/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print


Shoulder Instability: When Your Shoulder "Goes Out"(American Academy of Family Physicians) - http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/healthy/physical/injuries/390.printerview.html


Also available in Spanish http://familydoctor.org/online/famdoces/home/healthy/physical/injuries/390.printerview.html


Shoulder Joint Tear (Glenoid Labrum Tear)(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00426


Related Issues
Rotator Cuff Exercises(American Academy of Family Physicians) - http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/healthy/physical/injuries/265.printerview.html


Also available in Spanish http://familydoctor.org/online/famdoces/home/healthy/physical/injuries/265.printerview.html


Health Check Tools
Shoulder Injury(DSHI Systems) - http://www.freemd.com/shoulder-injury/visit-virtual-doctor.htm


Tutorials
Rotator Cuff Injuries(Patient Education Institute) - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/rotatorcuffinjuries/htm/index.htm


Also available in Spanish http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/tutorials/rotatorcuffinjuriesspanish/htm/index.htm


Shoulder Arthroscopy(Patient Education Institute) - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/shoulderarthroscopy/htm/index.htm


Also available in Spanish http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/tutorials/shoulderarthroscopyspanish/htm/index.htm


Shoulder Replacement(Patient Education Institute) - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/shoulderreplacement/htm/index.htm


Also available in Spanish http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/tutorials/shoulderreplacementspanish/htm/index.htm


Videos
Anatomic Total Shoulder System(OR-Live) - One hour program - 4/17/2008 - http://www.or-live.com/distributors/nlm-flash/deo_2053/rnh.cfm?id=717


Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair(OR-Live) - One hour program - 10/19/2006 - http://www.or-live.com/distributors/NLM/rnh.cfm?id=331


Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Procedure(OR-Live) - One hour program - http://www.or-live.com/distributors/NLM/rnh.cfm?id=260


Bankart Repair To Correct Shoulder Instability(OR-Live) - One hour program - 2/21/2008 - http://www.or-live.com/distributors/nlm-flash/cak_1838/rnh.cfm?id=699


Comprehensive Approach to Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair(OR-Live) - One hour program - 6/25/2008 - http://www.or-live.com/distributors/nlm-flash/dem_2441/rnh.cfm?id=746


Comprehensive Approach to Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: Options and Techniques(OR-Live) - One hour program - 09/19/2007 - http://www.or-live.com/distributors/nlm-flash/dem_2006/rnh.cfm?id=618


Reverse Shoulder System(OR-Live) - One hour program - 4/30/2008 - http://www.or-live.com/distributors/nlm-flash/deo_2054/rnh.cfm?id=712


Rotator Cuff Repair(OR-Live) - One hour program - 6/18/2008 - http://www.or-live.com/distributors/nlm-flash/bah_2388/rnh.cfm?id=744


Total Shoulder Arthroplasty(OR-Live) - One hour program - 10/18/2007 - http://www.or-live.com/distributors/nlm-flash/bio_1745/rnh.cfm?id=644


Clinical Trials
ClinicalTrials.gov: Acromioclavicular Joint Injuries(National Institutes of Health) - http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/open/condition=%22Acromioclavicular+Joint%22


ClinicalTrials.gov: Dislocations(National Institutes of Health) - http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/open/condition=%22Dislocations%22

ClinicalTrials.gov: Rotator Cuff Injuries(National Institutes of Health) - http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/open/condition=%22Rotator+Cuff%22


ClinicalTrials.gov: Shoulder Dislocation(National Institutes of Health) - http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/open/condition=%22Shoulder+Dislocation%22


ClinicalTrials.gov: Shoulder Fractures(National Institutes of Health) - http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/open/condition=%22Shoulder+Fractures%22


ClinicalTrials.gov: Shoulder Impingement Syndrome(National Institutes of Health) - http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/open/condition=%22Shoulder+Impingement+Syndrome%22


ClinicalTrials.gov: Shoulder Injuries(National Institutes of Health) - http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/open/condition=%22Shoulder%22


Journal Articles


References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
Article: Consistency of long-term outcome of acute Rockwood grade III acromioclavicular... - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=19509629&tool=MedlinePlus


Article: Proximal humeral migration in shoulders with symptomatic and asymptomatic rotator... - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=19487518&tool=MedlinePlus


Article: Open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with... - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=19487508&tool=MedlinePlus


Shoulder Injuries and Disorders -- see more articles - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=search&db=pubmed&term=(shoulder+dislocation[majr]+OR+shoulder+fractures[majr]+OR+shoulder/in[majr]+OR+shoulder+impingement+syndrome[majr]+OR+rotator+cuff/in[majr]+OR+(acromioclavicular+joint[majr]+AND+dislocations[majr]))+AND+english[la]+AND+humans[mh]+AND+(jsubsetk[text]+OR+jsubsetaim[text]+OR+jsubsetn[text]+OR+patient+education+handout[pt])+NOT+(letter[pt]+OR+editorial[pt]+OR+case+reports[pt])&doptcmdl=summary&cmd_current=Limits&pmfilter_EDatLimit=last+1+Year&tool=MedlinePlus


Dictionaries/Glossaries
Glossary of Orthopaedic Words(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/glossary.cfm


Directories
Find an Orthopaedist(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://www6.aaos.org/about/public/members.cfm


Organizations
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - http://www.aaos.org/


National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases - http://www.niams.nih.gov/


Also available in Spanish http://www.niams.nih.gov/Portal_En_Espanol/

You may also be interested in these MedlinePlus related pages:
Hand Injuries and Disorders - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/handinjuriesanddisorders.html


Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/thoracicoutletsyndrome.html


Bones, Joints and Muscles - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/bonesjointsandmuscles.html


Injuries and Wounds - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/injuriesandwounds.html

The primary NIH organization for research on Shoulder Injuries and Disorders is the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases -http://www.niams.nih.gov/



Shoulder Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/shoul...



Date last updated: July 21 2009
Topic last reviewed: December 01 2008
From MedlinePlus (http://medlineplus.gov), 24 Hour Health Information.

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