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Knee

Knee

Your knee joint is made up of bone, cartilage, ligaments and fluid. Muscles and tendons help the knee joint move. When any of these structures is hurt or diseased, you have knee problems. Knee problems can cause pain and difficulty walking.

Arthritis is the most common disease that affects bones in your knees. The cartilage in the knee gradually wears away, causing pain and swelling. Injuries to ligaments and tendons also cause knee problems. A common injury is to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). You usually injure your ACL by a sudden twisting motion. ACL and other knee injuries are common sports injuries.

Treatment of knee problems depends on the cause. In some cases your doctor may recommend knee replacement.

Start Here


Knee Problems(American Academy of Family Physicians) - http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/tools/symptom/542.printerview.html


What Are Knee Problems?(National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases) - http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Knee_Problems/knee_problems_ff.asp


Also available in Spanish http://www.niams.nih.gov/Portal_En_Espanol/Informacion_de_Salud/Problemas_de_rodillas/default.asp


Overviews


Knee Pain(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) - http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/knee-pain/DS00555/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print


Questions and Answers about Knee Problems(National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases) - http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Knee_Problems/default.asp


Latest News


Repair Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries in Young Athletes Quickly(07/14/2009, HealthDay) - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_86865.html


Diagnosis/Symptoms


Conventional Arthrography (Joint X-Ray)(American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America) - http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=arthrog&bhcp=1


Also available in Spanish http://www.radiologyinfo.org/sp/info.cfm?pg=arthrog


Knee Arthroscopy(Patient Education Institute) - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/kneearthroscopy/htm/index.htm


Also available in Spanish http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/tutorials/kneearthroscopyspanish/htm/index.htm


Knee Problems(American Academy of Family Physicians) - http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/tools/symptom/542.printerview.html


McMurray Test for Knee Injuries(InteliHealth) - http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtPrint/WSIHW000/4464/8475/404134.html?d=dmtATD&hide=t&k=basePrint


MRI of the Musculoskeletal System(American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America) - http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=muscmr


Also available in Spanish http://www.radiologyinfo.org/sp/info.cfm?pg=muscmr


Ultrasound - Musculoskeletal(American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America) - http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=musculous


Also available in Spanish http://www.radiologyinfo.org/sp/info.cfm?pg=musculous


Treatment
Knee Implants(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00221


MedlinePlus: Knee Replacement(National Library of Medicine) - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/kneereplacement.html


Meniscal Transplant Surgery(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00381


Osteotomy and Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00354


Surgical Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00385


Viscosupplementation Treatment for Arthritis(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00217


Prevention/Screening
Knee Bracing: What Works?(American Academy of Family Physicians) - http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/healthy/physical/injuries/490.printerview.html


Also available in Spanish http://familydoctor.org/online/famdoces/home/healthy/physical/injuries/490.printerview.html


Knee Exercises(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) -

http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00564


Rehabilitation/Recovery


Knee Arthroscopy Exercise Guide(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00300


Also available in Spanish http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00478


MedlinePlus: Mobility Aids - Canes, crutches, walkers, wheelchairs - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/mobilityaids.html


Taking Care of Your Knees(American Physical Therapy Association) - Links to PDF - http://www.apta.org/AM/Images/APTAIMAGES/ContentImages/ptandbody/Knee/Knees.pdf


Specific Conditions

ACL Injury Guide(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) - http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/acl-injury/AC99999/PAGE=all&METHOD=print


Arthritis of the Knee(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00212


Also available in Spanish http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00465


Articular Cartilage Injuries(American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine) - Links to PDF - http://www.sportsmed.org/secure/reveal/admin/uploads/documents/ST%20Articular%20Cartilage%2008.pdf


Baker's Cyst (Popliteal Cyst)(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) - http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/bakers-cyst/DS00448/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print


Chondromalacia Patella(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) - http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/chondromalacia-patella/DS00777/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print


Collateral Ligament Injuries(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00550


Combined Knee Ligament Injuries(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00551


Goosefoot (Pes Anserine) Bursitis of the Knee(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00335


Hyperextended Knee: How Is It Treated?(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) - http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/hyperextended-knee/AN00283/METHOD=print


Kneecap (Prepatellar) Bursitis(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00338


Meniscal Tears(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00358


Also available in Spanish http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00470


Osteoarthritis of the Knee(American Academy of Family Physicians) - http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/common/pain/disorders/616.printerview.html


Also available in Spanish http://familydoctor.org/online/famdoces/home/common/pain/disorders/616.printerview.html


Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Guide for Adults(Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality) - http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/healthInfo.cfm?infotype=sg&DocID=132&ProcessID=89


Osteoarthritis of the Knee: FAQs(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00228


Osteochondritis Dissecans(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) - http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/osteochondritis-dissecans/DS00741/METHOD=print&DSECTION=all


Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD)(American Academy of Family Physicians) - http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/articles/488.printerview.html


Also available in Spanish http://familydoctor.org/online/famdoces/home/articles/488.printerview.html


Osteonecrosis of the Knee(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00225


Patellar Instability (Unstable Kneecap)(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00350


Patellar Tendinitis(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) - http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/patellar-tendinitis/DS00625/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print


Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome(American Academy of Family Physicians) - http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/healthy/physical/injuries/479.printerview.html


Also available in Spanish http://familydoctor.org/online/famdoces/home/healthy/physical/injuries/479.printerview.html


Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS)(American Academy of Family Physicians) - http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/common/pain/disorders/469.printerview.html


Also available in Spanish http://familydoctor.org/online/famdoces/home/common/pain/disorders/469.printerview.html


Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Tear(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00420


Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) - http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/posterior-cruciate-ligament/DS00928/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print

Runner's Knee (Patellofemoral Pain)(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00382


Torn Meniscus(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) - http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/torn-meniscus/DS00932/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print


Water on the Knee(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) - http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/water-on-the-knee/DS00662/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print


Related Issues
Anesthesia for Hip and Knee Surgery(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00372


JAMA Patient Page: Knee Pain(American Medical Association) - http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/297/15/1740.pdf


Also available in Spanish http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/data/297/15/1740/DC1/1


Health Check Tools


Knee Injury(DSHI Systems) - http://www.freemd.com/knee-injury/visit-virtual-doctor.htm


Knee Pain (DSHI Systems) - http://www.freemd.com/knee-pain-unilateral/visit-virtual-doctor.htm


Knee Stiffness (DSHI Systems) - http://www.freemd.com/knee-stiffness-unilateral/visit-virtual-doctor.htm


Tutorials
About Joint Arthroscopy(Arthritis Foundation) - http://ww2.arthritis.org/conditions/surgerycenter/surgerycenterflash/arthroscopy.html


Knee Arthroscopy(Patient Education Institute) - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/kneearthroscopy/htm/index.htm


Also available in Spanish http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/tutorials/kneearthroscopyspanish/htm/index.htm


Surgical Procedures: Hip, Knee, Shoulder(Arthritis Foundation) - http://www.arthritis.org/joint-surgery.php


Unicondylar Knee Resurfacing(Arthritis Foundation) - http://ww2.arthritis.org/conditions/surgerycenter/surgerycenterflash/uni.html


Videos
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction Surgery(OR-Live) - One hour program - 5/14/2007 - http://www.or-live.com/distributors/NLM/rnh.cfm?id=529


Arthroscopic Surgery to Replace a Young Athlete's ACL(OR-Live) - One hour program - 10/17/2006 - http://www.or-live.com/distributors/NLM/rnh.cfm?id=350


If I Had - A Popping Knee(Insidermedicine) - http://insidermedicine.com/archives/If_I_Had_-_A_Popping_Knee_-_Dr_Wiemi_Duouguih_MD_2787.aspx?p=mdlnp


Knee Pain and the Weekend Warriors(OR-Live) - One hour program - 3/17/2009 - http://www.or-live.com/distributors/NLM-Flash/meh_2261/rnh.cfm?id=858


Also available in Spanish http://www.or-live.com/distributors/NLM-Flash/meh_2703/rnh.cfm?id=867


Clinical Trials
ClinicalTrials.gov: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries(National Institutes of Health) - http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/open/condition=%22 Anterior+Cruciate+Ligament%22


ClinicalTrials.gov: Articular Cartilage Disorders(National Institutes of Health) - http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/open/condition=%22 Cartilage,+Articular%22


ClinicalTrials.gov: Patella Disorders(National Institutes of Health) - http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/open/condition=%22 Patella%22


ClinicalTrials.gov: Knee Injuries(National Institutes of Health) - http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/open/term=knee+injuries


Questions & Answers - NIH Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT)(National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine) -http://nccam.nih.gov/research/results/gait/qa.htm


Research
Alternative Warm-Up Program Reduces Risk of ACL Injuries for Female College Soccer Players(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) -http://www.cdc.gov/media/pressrel/2008/r080725.htm


Knee Pain and Meniscus Tears—What's the Connection?(National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases) -http://www.niams.nih.gov/News_and_Events/Spotlight_on_Research/2009/meniscus_tears.asp


Lifetime Risk of Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - http://www.cdc.gov/features/osteoarthritis/


Journal Articles
References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
Article: Range of motion and quadriceps muscle power after early surgical... - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=19487506&tool=MedlinePlus


Article: How severe are initially undetected injuries to the knee accompanying... - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=19430245&tool=MedlinePlus


Article: Knee ligament surgery. Age limits are changing. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=19400012&tool=MedlinePlus


Knee Injuries and Disorders -- see more articles - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=search&db=pubmed&term=(knee+injuries[majr]+OR+patella/injuries[majr])+AND+english[la]+AND+humans[mh]+AND+(jsubsetk[text]+OR+jsubsetaim[text]+OR+jsubsetn[text]+OR+guideline[pt]+OR+clinical+trial[pt]+OR+patient+education+handout[pt])+NOT+(letter[pt]+OR+editorial[pt]+OR+case+reports[pt])&doptcmdl=summary&cmd_current=Limits&pmfilter_EDatLimit=last+1+Year&tool=MedlinePlus

Meniscal injuries -- see more articles - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=search&db=pubmed&term=menisci,tibial/in[majr]+OR+menisci,tibial/su[majr]+AND+english[la]+AND+humans[mh]+NOT+(letter[pt]+OR+e! ditorial[pt]+OR+case+reports[pt])&doptcmdl=summary&cmd_current=Limits&pmfilter_EDatLimit=last+1+Year&tool=MedlinePlus


Dictionaries/Glossaries
Glossary of Orthopaedic Words(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/glossary.cfm


Directories
AAHKS Doctor Locator(American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons) - http://www.aahks.org/patients/public/memdir.cfm


Find an Orthopaedist(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://www6.aaos.org/about/public/members.cfm


Organizations
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - http://www.aaos.org/


National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases - http://www.niams.nih.gov/

Also available in Spanish http://www.niams.nih.gov/Portal_En_Espanol/


Statistics


Knee Osteoarthritis Statistics(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00399


MedlinePlus Magazine
Athlete's Nightmare: Tearing the ACL - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/magazine/issues/summer08/articles/summer08pg24-26.html

Children
Knock-Knees(Children's Hospital Boston) - http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/Site1103/mainpageS1103P0.html


Osgood-Schlatter Disease(Nemours Foundation) - http://kidshealth.org/kid/ill_injure/aches/osgood_schlatter.html


Teenagers
Adolescent Anterior Knee Pain(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00041


Knee Injuries(Nemours Foundation) - http://kidshealth.org/teen/safety/first_aid/knee_injuries.html


Osgood-Schlatter Disease(Nemours Foundation) - http://kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/sports/osgood.html

Osgood-Schlatter Disease: A Cause of Knee Pain in Children(American Academy of Family Physicians) - http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/children/parents/special/bone/135.printerview.html


Also available in Spanish http://familydoctor.org/online/famdoces/home/children/parents/special/bone/135.printerview.html


Seniors
Care of the Aging or Post-Traumatic Knee(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00344


You may also be interested in these MedlinePlus related pages:


Knee Replacement - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/kneereplacement.html


Leg Injuries and Disorders - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/leginjuriesanddisorders.html


Bones, Joints and Muscles - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/bonesjointsandmuscles.html


Injuries and Wounds - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/injuriesandwounds.html


The primary NIH organization for research on Knee Injuries and Disorders is the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases -http://www.niams.nih.gov/



Knee Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/kneei...



Date last updated: July 21 2009
Topic last reviewed: June 12 2009
From MedlinePlus (http://medlineplus.gov), 24 Hour Health Information.




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